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Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards.

Access Copyright
A copyright collective that grants licences to photocopy works and collects fees on behalf of its members.
Berne Copyright Convention
An international treaty extending copyright protection in member countries to nationals of other member countries. Canada is a signatory to this treaty.
Copyright infringement
Violation of copyright through unauthorized copying or use of a work or other subject matter under copyright.
Copyrights
A set of exclusive rights, including the right to copy a work, a performance or a sound recording.
Distribution right
The exclusive rights of copyright owners to authorize the first transfer of ownership (such as by sale) of each copy of the protected material.
Dramatic work
Work that includes plays, screenplays, scripts, films, videos and choreographic works, as well as translations of such works.
Fair dealing
A feature of Canada's copyright law that permits individuals and businesses to make certain uses of copyrighted material in ways that do not threaten the legitimate interests of copyright owners but that could have significant economic, societal and cultural benefits.
Format shifting
Copying content into other formats and onto other devices (e.g., transferring content from a CD to an MP3 player).
Information location tools (ILTs) or search engines
ILTs sort through content available on the Internet and locate specific information.
Internet intermediaries
Intermediaries include Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and businesses that provide Information Location Tools (ILTs) or search engines, such as Google.
Internet neutrality or network neutrality
A principle that prohibits discrimination of Internet traffic based on the source, destination or content of the transmission.
Internet service providers (ISPs)
Also referred to as an Internet access provider, an ISP is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet.
Licence
Legal agreement granting someone permission to use a work for certain purposes or under certain conditions. A licence does not constitute a change in ownership of the copyright.
Making available right
An exclusive right of copyright owners to authorize the communication of their work or other related subject matter in a manner in which the time and place of receiving the communication can be individually chosen by members of the public (e.g., iTunes).
Moral rights
Rights that authors and performers retain over the integrity of a work or sound recording, and the right to be named as its creator even after the sale or transfer of the copyright.
Musical work
Work that consists of music plus lyrics or music only.
"Notice and notice" regime
A requirement for ISPs to forward to their subscribers any allegations of infringement they receive from rights holders and to retain identifying information of alleged infringers on their networks.
Performers and producers rights
A term used to indicate the rights of performers and sound recording producers to be remunerated when their performances and sound recordings are performed publicly or broadcast. Also referred to as "neighbouring rights."
Performing Rights Society
An organization that administers rights to perform musical works on behalf of composers, lyricists, songwriters and music publishers.
Private copying
The copying of pre-recorded musical works, performers' performances and sound recordings onto a blank medium, such as audio tape or cassette, for personal use.
Rights holders
Individuals, businesses or organizations that own the copyright on a work or other subject matter (e.g., authors, performers, producers, video game publishers, photographers, visual artists).
Sound recording
A recording that consists of sounds but excludes soundtracks that accompany a film.
Statutory damages
Damages, within a range established by the Copyright Act, that an owner of copyright may claim against an infringer without having to prove actual damages.
Technological neutrality
A principle that the law should not be limited to current, existing technologies. Under this principle, laws should be designed to reflect the reality of rapidly evolving media and technologies associated with copyright works and stand the test of time.
Technological protection measures (TPMs)
A technological protection measure (TPM), or a "digital lock," is a technological tool used to restrict access to or copying of a work. TPMs can include measures that
  1. Protect against copying and other acts that infringe copyright;
  2. Protect against accessing copyrighted works.
Time shifting
The recording of programming (e.g., a TV show) to a device or medium to be viewed or listened to at a more convenient time.
User groups
Groups of persons, businesses or organizations with common interests (e.g., consumers, educators, libraries, archives, museums, researchers, software developers) that use copyrighted work or other subject matter in the course of their usual activities.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Internet Treaties
The WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty are commonly known as the WIPO Internet Treaties. These 1996 treaties update international copyright standards for the Internet era.

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